The Colonial Cycle

Era of Religious Intolerance (1641-1674)




The 13 Original
American Colonies


Cohorts: Glorious Generation - Hero, Civic Type (1648-1673)
Cotton Mather, William Fitzhugh, Robert Beverly, Jonathon Swift, Samuel Sewall, Joseph Talcott

Timeline events: Inner-Driven (3rd Turning - Unraveling)Era

(1641) Massachusetts adopts the "Body of Liberties" legal code based on the Old Testiment, first American patent issued in Massachusetts
(1642) Civil war breaks out in England between the Puritans and supporters of Charles I
(1643) Connecticut, Massachusetts, Plymouth and New Hampshire confederate as "United Colonies of New England
(1644) Roger Williams receives formal charter for Rhode Island, English Civil War fought as Maryland's Religious War (1644-1654)
(1645) Peace treaties achieved with local Indian tribes
(1646) Massachusetts institutes the death penalty for heresy
(1647) Peter Stuyvesant arrives in New Amsterdam, Massachusetts requires public education for citizens, Rhode Island formally adopts seperation of Church and State and public inititive
(1648) Female property holder demands vote in Maryland, Margaret Jones hanged for witchcraft in Boston, Swedish and Dutch settlers feud, Massachusetts grants shoemakers first recognition of a labor organization, Dutch pit Iraquois against Hurons that support French (1648-1650)
(1649) Religious freedom is official in Maryland and Maine
(1650) Anne Bradstreet becomes first American poet published in London
(1651) England tries to block Dutch trade from the colonies , Swedish and Dutch colonists feud on the Delaware River
(1652) Colonial leaders who declare loyalty to Charles II are removed from Authority by English officials, Rhode Island declares slavery illegal, Massachusetts claims Maine, war between English and Dutch effects colonial affairs , Massachusetts Bay Colony proclaims itself independent, Boston mints its own "Pine Tree" shilling
(1653) Settlers from Virginia begin to settle the area that eventually becomes North Carolina , John Eliot publishes _Catechism in the Indian Language_ the first book printed in a native language
(1654) First Jewish immigration to North America
(1656) Massachusetts continue practice of religious intolerance by beating, imprisoning and banishing Quakers, all woman jury acquits woman charged with abortion in Maryland
(1657) Following Massachusetts' lead several colonies mistreat and banish Quakers
(1659) Two banned Quakers hung in Massachusetts
(1660) John Eliot est. first Indian church in Natick, Mass., Colonial "Navigation Act" reenacted by British
(1661) John Eliot publishes the Bible in the Algonquin Language, King Charles II orders Mass. to quit persecuting Quakers
(1662) Connecticut receives official charter, Massachusetts creates "Half Way Covenant" to baptize children of non-believers
(1663) King Charles II officially designates the colony of Carolina which includes both North and South Carolina
(1664) Duke of York obtains a grant that includes all Dutch holdings in North America, New Jersey formed by a grant from the Duke of York, Peter Stuyvesant surrenders to English forces and New Amsterdam is renamed New York, North Carolina adopts _Concessions and Agreements_ as a governmental form, colonies begin passing laws of servitude for slaves to get around English legal precedents which allow freeing of slaves who convert to Christianity, New York horseracing becomes first organized sport
(1665) Except for the Massachusetts Bay Colony the colonies reluctantly agree to swear allegiance to Crown and allow freedom of religion
(1669) _Fundamental Constitutions_ proposed in Carolina
(1670) Hudson Bay Company formed
(1671) Plymouth officials deal with "King Phillip" (Metacomet) son of Massassoit of the Wampanoag tribe
(1672) the Royal Africa Company is granted a monopoly over slave trade , first copyright law passed in Massachusetts
(1673) Marquette and Jolliet explore the Mississippi
(1674) French Jesuit explorer Father Marquette establishes mission at site of present Chicago , LaSalle obtains a patent to explore the Mississippi, William Penn begins to obtain rights to land for Quakers

Foreign Contemporaries: Queen Anne, The Kangxi Emperor, Peter the Great, King William III

Foreign Timeline events: Income and property taxes introduced in England (1642), Presbyterian Church established in England (1643), the Chinese Ming Dynasty falls to the Manchus (1644), Cromwell defeats Charles I at Naseby (1645), Pascal invents the hypodermic syringe (1646), first newspaper advertisement in England (1647), Charles I is executed and the Commonwealth is established (1649), war between English and Dutch (1652), Charles II restored (1660), the English Crown expands its Navigation Act (1660), Sir Isaac Newton discovers the Law of Gravity (1665), the Great Plague of London (1665), English-Dutch hostilities resume (1673),

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