Cycles in U.S. History

The Revolutionary War Cycle (1693-1787)




The 13 Original
American Colonies

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The Awakeners were the idealist generation of the Revolutionary Cycle. A religious upswelling ( a spiritual event called the Great Awakening) occured while they were becoming adults and swept the land. During that time these youth were known to condemn their own parents for a lack of piety. Later when they had become stern patrons, like Old Ben Franklin, they watched as a young civic generation, S&H called the Republicans, brought the colonies together, during a secular event we all remember, as the American Revolution, and wrestled independence from Europe.

Rare Map Collection - Revolutionary America


The Age of Enlightenment - 1st Turning, High (1693-1733)

Cohorts: Awakening Generation - Prophet, Idealist Type (1701-1723)
Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Adams, John Witherspoon, Roger Sherman, Crispus Attucks, Samuel Davies, Roger Sherman, Thomas Hutchinson, Jonathon Edwards, Gilbert Tennant,.

Author's Ancestors: Author's great, great, great, great, great grandfather - Samuel Murray (born in Ireland, 1724)

American Timeline Events: Pima indians rebel against Spanish in Southwest (1695), New York City offers relief to the poor (1695), Vestry Act makes Anglicanism official religion of North Carolina (1701), Queen Anne's War between French and British (1702-1713), Tuscarora Indians resist colonization and are driven from North and South Carolina (1711-12), Treaty of Utrecht ends Spanish War of Succession in Europe and Queen Anne's War in colonies (1713), War against Yamasee indians in Southern Colonies (1715-16), John Law's promotion of Louisiana colonization creates "Mississippi Bubble" (1720), Iroquois Nation concludes major treaty with Virginia (1722), The first church for "colored" Baptists founded in Williamsburg, Va (1725), French battle Natchez indians in Mississippi (1729), Benjamin Franklin founds the Library Company as first circulating Library in the world (1731), First Stage Coach line established in New Jersey (1732), King George II grants James Oglethorpe a royal charter for Georgia (1732), British Parliament passes Molasses Act (1733)

Foreign Contemporaries: John Wesley, Jean- Jacques Rousseau, Frederick the Great, Adam Smith, Baron Munchhausen, Sir John Murray, John Montagu Sandwich, Horace Walpole, Charles III, Thomas Gray, Peter II, John Stuart Bute, George Grenville, Frederick II, David Hume, Richard Grenville, Louis XV, Samuel Johnson, William Pitt, Leonhard Euler, Henry Fielding, Carolus Linnaeus, Charles and JohnWesley, Anders Celsius

Foreign Timeline Events: War of Spanish Succession begins (1701), 15 year old German composer, J. S. Bach, begins to give organ lessons (1701), Anne becomes Queen of England (1702), first daily newspaper, "The Daily Courant" is published in London and "Moscow Gazette" begins publication by order of Peter the Great (1702), Halley predicts the comet (1705), first Life Insurance Co. opens in London (1706), England and Scotland form Great Britain (1707), the Mogul empire in India begins to disintegrate (1707), Italian Harpsichord maker invents the piano (1709), Fahrenheit invents the thermometer (1709), Handel's opera "Agripa" produced (1710), half a million killed by Bubonic Plague in Austria and Germany (1711), Queen Anne's War (War of Spanish Sucession) ends (1713), Peter the Great introduces public education in Russia (1714), Voltaire imprisoned (1717), Treaty of the Hague (1720), Manchu Dynasty flourishes in China (1722), China bans Christianity (1723), King George II succeeds King George I (1727).

Expanded Timeline ahead


The Great Awakening Era - 2nd Turning, Awakening (1734-1743)

Cohorts: Liberty Generation - Nomad, Reactive Type (1724-1741)
Daniel Boone, Paul Revere, Patrick Henry, Benedict Arnold, Thomas Paine, John Hancock, Ethan Allen

Presidents: George Washington, John Adams

Author's Ancestors:

American Timeline Events: Publisher John Peter Zenger is found innocent of libel in New York (1735), William Penn's son Thomas swindles Indians with the "Walking Purchase" (1737), Slaves from Charleston, SC are killed trying to get to Spanish Florida (1739), Jonathon Edwards delivers powerful sermon to cap off "Great Awakening" (1741), Colonists are attacked by Spanish in War of Jenkin's Ear (1742), Quaker John Woolman first to preach against slavery (1743),

Foreign Contemporaries: Edmund Burke, Catherine the Great, George III, Captain James Cook, Immanuel Kant, James Watt, Joseph Priestly

Foreign Timeline Events: Carolus Linnaeus introduces Systema Naturae (1735), England declares war on Spain in the War of Jenkin's Ear (1739),

Expanded Timeline ahead


The French and Indian War Era - 3rd Turning, Unraveling (1744-1773)

Cohorts: Republican Generation - Hero, Civic Type (1742-1766)
John Paul Jones, Nathan Hale, Robert Fulton, Eli Whitney, Alexander Hamilton, Noah Webster, Betsy Ross, John Marshall, Oliver Evans

Presidents: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe

Author's Ancestors: Author's great, great, great, great grandfather - James Murray (born in Pennsylvania, 1747)

American Timeline Events: King Georges War / Austrian War of Succession (1744-48), Ben Franklin gains international fame for experiments in electricity and other science (1751), Pimas revolt against Spanish in southwest (1751), French and Indian War / Seven Years War (1754-63), George Washington defeats French in Pennsylvania to ignite F&I War (1754), George Washington defeated at Battle of Great Meadows, PA (1754), British Treaty of Easton with PA Indian tribes turns F&I War in their favor (1758), Chief Pontiac attacks Fort Detroit to start Pontiac's Rebellion (1763), Pontiac's Rebellion (1763-1766), King George issues Proclamation of 1763 restricting settlers to East of Appalachians (1763), John Singleton Copely paints portrait of John Hancock (1765), Patrick Henry attacks Stamp Act in Virginia (1765), Stamp Act Congress meets in New York to respond to Stamp Act (1765), Stamp Act Congress convinces London Merchants to ask Parliament to repeal Stamp Act (1766), Daniel Boone probes Cumberland Gap (1767), Spain replaces Jesuits wth Franciscans in New World (1767), British ships in Boston Harbor to enforce order (1768), Father Junipero Serra founds first California Spanish Mission in San Diego (1769), The Boston Massacre (1770), Benjamin Franklin begins work on his autobiography (1771), Boston Tea Party (1773)

Foreign Contemporaries: Marie Antoinette, Robert Burns, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Maximilien Robespierre, Mary Wollstonecraft, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, Edward Jenner, Alexander von Humboldt, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nicolas Appert, Jacquard

Foreign Timeline Events: Austrian War of Succession (1744-48), Seven Years War (1754-63), George III becomes King of England (1760), the Treaty of Paris officially concludes the Seven Year War (1763), British levy Stamp Act and Quartering Act (1765), Parliament repeals Stamp Act and passes Declaratory Act on same day (1766), Parliament passes the 1st Townshend Revenue Act (1767), British Parliament repeals Townshend Acts except for tea (1770), Parliament passes the Tea Act (1773)

Expanded Timeline ahead


The American Revolution Era - 4th Turning, Crisis (1774-1787)

Cohorts: Compromise Generation - Artist, Adaptive Type (1767-1791)
Dolley Madison , Henry Clay, Meriwether Lewis, Captain William Clark, Daniel Webster, Washington Irving, Davey Crockett, J.Fenimore Cooper, Samuel F. B. Morse


Presidents: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren, William Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor, James Buchanan

Author's Ancestors: Author's great, great, great grandfather - William Murray (born in North Carolina, 1785

American Timeline Events: First Continental Congress meets (1774), the Battle of Lexinton and Concord starts American Revolution (1775), Thomas Paine publishes "Common Sense" (1776), Declaration of Independence (1776)

Foreign Contemporaries: Napolean Bonaparte, Ludwig van Beethoven, Sir Walter Scott, Simon Bolivar, Jane Austen, Charles Babbage, Georg Hegel, Carl Gauss, Carl von Clausewitz, Michael Faraday, David Ricardo, George Stephenson

Foreign Timeline Events: Adam Smith publishes Wealth of Nations (1776), France declares war on Britain (1778), Spain declares war on England (1779).

Expanded Timeline ahead


For each historical era I show a list of notable Americans born to that generation and a pointer to the timeline of importantant events in American History that occured during that time. It is important to keep in mind that these are the events that shaped the early life of this generation. A few important foreign cohorts and global events are also listed to provide a contextual backdrop for each era

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