The Civil War Cycle

The Civil War Era (1860-1865)




The 13 Original
American Colonies


Cohorts: Progressive Generation - Artist, Adaptive Type (1843-1859)
Theodore Roosevelt, William McKinley, William Taft, Montgomery Ward, Woodrow Wilson, George Westinghouse, Thomas Edison , John Philip Sousa, Booker T. Washington, George Washington Carver, Alexander Graham Bell, Sarah Bernhardt, William "Buffalo Bill" Cody, Joseph Pulitzer, Jesse James, Wyatt Earp, Billy the Kid

Timeline events: Crisis Era

(1860) The Pony Express starts service , South Carolina secedes from the Union , Lincoln elected
(1861) Confederate States of America formed with Jefferson Davis its President , Fort Sumter fired uponBlog Reference , Confederates win the first Battle of Bull Run , Mathew Brady begins his photographic history of the Civil War , first coast-to-coast telegraph wires strung , Vassar College founded , first Federal Income Tax levied
(1862) Homestead Act passedBlog Reference , iron-clad ships "Monitor" (Union) and "Merrimack" (Confederate) battle, Union and Confederate forces wage battle at New Orleans, Shiloh, Virginia (7 day Battle), Bull Run (2nd), Antietam and Fredricksburg, Julia Ward Howe writes "The Battle Hymn of the Republic", Gatling patents his Machine Gun
(1863) Emancipation Proclamation, Battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Vicksburg, Chickamauga and Chattanooga are fought, Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address, Samuel Clemens adopts the pen name "Mark Twain", National Academy of Science (NAS) founded
(1864) Lincoln reelected, with Ulysses S. Grant leading the Union forces and Robert E. Lee leading the Confederates the Civil War continues to rage at the Battles of Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Atlanta and at Sherman's march to the sea at Savannah, "In God We Trust' first appears on a U.S. coin
(1865) The Union Army finally corners Lee and forces a surrender at Appomattox ending the Civil War, Lincoln Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth and Andrew Johnson becomes President, 13th Amendment passed, abolishing slavery, baseball becomes popular after the war, MIT opens with 15 students, Chicago's Union Stockyards open

Foreign Contemporaries: Vincent van Gogh, Oscar Wilde, Sigmund Freud, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Paul Gauguin, Ivan Pavlov, Luther Burbank, Robert Louis Stevenson, George Bernard Shaw, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Robert E. Peary, Otto Lilienthal, Max Planck, Carl Benz

Foreign Timeline Events: Garibaldi and the Redshirts conquer Sicily and Naples (1860), George Eliot publishes "The Mill on the Floss" (1860), Florence Nightingale founds the first Nursing school (1860), first British Open Golf Championship held (1860), Prince Albert dies and Queen Victoria goes into seclusion (1861), William I becomes King of Prussia (1861), Charles Dickens publishes "Great Expectations" (1861), Otto von Bismarck becomes Prime Minister of Prussia (1862), Victor Hugo publishes "Les Miserables (1862), Jules Verne publishes his first novel "Five Weeks in a Balloon" (1863), Austrian Arch-Duke Maximilian is proclaimed Emperor of Mexico by French conquerors (1863), Chinese Army suppresses the Taiping Rebellion (1864), James Maxwell proposes theory of Electromagnetic Waves (1864), Louis Pasteur develops "pasteurization" of wine (1864), Lewis Carrol publishes "Alices Adventures in Wonderland" (1865), Leo Tolstoy publishes "War and Peace" (1865), Salvation Army founded (1865), Marquis of Queensberry boxing rules are established (1865).

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